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Recent Research

Recent research on carbohydrates, health and associated subjects

The research papers summarised below have been published recently in peer-reviewed scientific journals. These represent a broad overview of the ongoing activity in this area, and stem from a variety of authors, institutions and funding sources.

Any opinions expressed in the recent research abstracts are those of the authors of the original scientific papers and may not reflect the views of Sugar Nutrition UK.

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Relevance of liver fat to the impact of dietary extrinsic sugars on lipid metabolism
Griffin,B.A., (2015) Proc.Nutr.Soc. 74:208-214    10.1017/S0029665115002050

Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners
Pepino,M.Y., (2015) Physiol.Behav. S0031-9384(15)00372-8

Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort
Pot,G.K., Prynne,C.J., Almoosawi,S., Kuh,D. and Stephen,A.A., (2015) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 69:817-823   10.1038/ejcn.2014.223

Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages
O'Connor,L., Imamura,F., Lentjes,M.A., Khaw,K.T., Wareham,N.J. and Forouhi,N.G., (2015) Diabetologia 58:1474-1483   10.1007/s00125-015-3572-1

Health Effects of Fructose and Fructose-Containing Caloric Sweeteners: Where Do We Stand 10 Years After the Initial Whistle Blowings?
Tappy,L. and Le,K.A., (2015) Curr.Diab Rep. 15:627-015-0627-0  10.1007/s11892-015-0627-0

The association between carbohydrate-rich foods and risk of cardiovascular disease is not modified by genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia as determined by 80 validated variants
Sonestedt,E., Hellstrand,S., Schulz,C.A., et al, (2015) PLoS One 10:e0126104   10.1371/journal.pone.0126104

Excessive Sugar Consumption May Be a Difficult Habit to Break: A View From the Brain and Body
Tryon,M.S., Stanhope,K.L., Epel,E.S., et al, (2015) J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 100:2239-2247  10.1210/jc.2014-4353

Sugars and obesity: It is the sugars or the calories? 
Choo,V.L., Ha,V. and Sievenpiper,J.L., (2015) Nutrition Bulletin 40:88-96   10.1111/nbu.12137

Childhood energy intake is associated with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in adolescents
Anderson,E.L., Howe,L.D., Fraser,A., et al, (2015) J.Nutr. 145:983-989  10.3945/jn.114.208397

The obesity paradox in type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship of body mass index to prognosis: a cohort study
Costanzo,P., Cleland,J.G., Pellicori,P., et al, (2015) Ann.Intern.Med. 162:610-618  10.7326/M14-1551

Associations between dietary intake and the presence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Georgoulis,M., Kontogianni,M.D., Margariti,A., et al, (2015) J.Hum.Nutr.Diet. 10.1111/jhn.12323

A dose-response study of consuming high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults
Stanhope,K.L., Medici,V., Bremer,A.A., et al, (2015) m.J.Clin.Nutr. ajcn100461

Substitution of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Other Beverage Alternatives: A Review of Long-Term Health Outcomes
Zheng,M., Allman-Farinelli,M., Heitmann,B.L. and Rangan,A., (2015) J.Acad.Nutr.Diet. 115:767-779     S2212-2672(15)00112-4

Calorie Restriction and Matched Weight Loss From Exercise: Independent and Additive Effects on Glucoregulation and the Incretin System in Overweight Women and Men
Weiss,E.P., Albert,S.G., Reeds,D.N., et al, (2015) Diabetes Care dc142913

The ecologic validity of fructose feeding trials: Supraphysiological feeding of fructose in human trials requires careful consideration when drawing conclusions on cardiometabolic risk
Choo,V.L. and Sievenpiper,J.L., (2015) Frontiers in Nutrition 2:10.3389/fnut.2015.00012

Carbohydrates in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes
Mann,J. and Morenga,L.T., (2015) Diabet.Med. 32:572-575     10.1111/dme.12673

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of hypertension and CVD: a dose-response meta-analysis
Xi,B., Huang,Y., Reilly,K.H., et al, (2015) Br.J.Nutr. 113:709-717    10.1017/S0007114514004383

Association of late-night carbohydrate intake with glucose tolerance among pregnant African American women
Chandler-Laney,P.C., Schneider,C.R., Gower,B.A., Granger,W.M., Mancuso,M.S. and Biggio,J.R., (2015) Matern.Child.Nutr. 10.1111/mcn.12181

Statistical review of US macronutrient consumption data, 1965-2011: Americans have been following dietary guidelines, coincident with the rise in obesity
Cohen,E., Cragg,M., deFonseka,J., Hite,A., Rosenberg,M. and Zhou,B., (2015) Nutrition 31:727-732    10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.007

Change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults, 1999-2010
An,R. and Burd,N.A., (2015) Public Health Nutr. 18:1343-1352    10.1017/S1368980014001876

Beverage habits and mortality in chinese adults
Odegaard,A.O., Koh,W.P., Yuan,J.M. and Pereira,M.A., Beverage (2015) J.Nutr. 145:595-604   10.3945/jn.114.200253

Changing Beverage Consumption Patterns Have Resulted in Fewer Liquid Calories in the Diets of US Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010
Mesirow,M.S. and Welsh,J.A., (2014) .Acad.Nutr.Diet. S2212-2672(14)01368-9

A metabolomics approach to the identification of biomarkers of sugar-sweetened beverage intake
Gibbons,H., McNulty,B.A., Nugent,A.P., et al, (2015) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 101:471-477   10.3945/ajcn.114.095604

Association between sucrose intake and risk of overweight and obesity in a prospective sub-cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk)
Kuhnle,G.G., Tasevska,N., Lentjes,M.A., et al, (2015) Public Health Nutr. 1-10   S1368980015000300

Sugar-sweetened product consumption alters glucose homeostasis compared with dairy product consumption in men and women at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Maki,K.C., Nieman,K.M., Schild,A.L., et al, (2015) J.Nutr. 145:459-466   10.3945/jn.114.204503

Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial
Ross,R., Hudson,R., Stotz,P.J. and Lam,M., (2015) Ann.Intern.Med. 162:325-334   10.7326/M14-1189

High Sucrose Intake at 3 Years of Age is Associated with Increased Salivary Counts of Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli, and with Increased Caries Rate from 3 to 16 Years of Age
Karjalainen,S., Tolvanen,M., Pienihakkinen,K., Soderling,E., Lagstrom,H. and Simell,O.N., H., (2015) Caries Research 49:125-132   DOI: 10.1159/000369358

A qualitative investigation of patients' understanding of carbohydrate in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes
Breen,C., McKenzie,K., Yoder,R., Ryan,M., Gibney,M.J. and O'Shea,D., (2015) J.Hum.Nutr.Diet. 10.1111/jhn.12292

Soft drink consumption is positively associated with increased waist circumference and 10-year incidence of abdominal obesity in spanish adults
Funtikova,A.N., Subirana,I., Gomez,S.F., et al,(2015) J.Nutr. 145:328-334   10.3945/jn.114.205229

Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake
Wittekind,A. and Walton,J.,(2014) Nutr.Res.Rev. 27:330-345   10.1017/S0954422414000237

Portion size: what we know and what we need to know
Benton,D., (2015) Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 55:988-1004   10.1080/10408398.2012.679980

A systematic methodology to estimate added sugar content of foods
Louie,J.C., Moshtaghian,H., Boylan,S., et al, (2015) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 69:154-161   10.1038/ejcn.2014.256

Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data
Maguire,E.R. and Monsivais,P., (2014) Br.J.Nutr. 1-9      S0007114514002621

Associations between diet quality and mental health in socially disadvantaged New Zealand adolescents
Kulkarni,A.A., Swinburn,B.A. and Utter,J., (2015) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 69:79-83     10.1038/ejcn.2014.130

Understanding eating in the absence of hunger among young children: A systematic review of existing studies
Lansigan,R.K., Emond,J.A. and Gilbert-Diamond,D., (2015) Appetite 85C:36-47     S0195-6663(14)00515-7

Carbohydrates and obesity: from evidence to policy in the UK
Jebb,S.A., (2014) Proc.Nutr.Soc. 1-6   S0029665114001645

A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes
Gower,B.A. and Goss,A.M., (2015) J.Nutr. 145:177S-83S      10.3945/jn.114.195065

Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain
Fabbrini,E., Yoshino,J., Yoshino,M., et al, (2015) J.Clin.Invest.  10.1172/JCI78425

Childhood adiposity trajectories and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents
Ayonrinde,O.T., Olynyk,J.K., Marsh,J.A., et al, (2015) J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 30:163-171          10.1111/jgh.12666

Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism
Markus,C.R., Jonkman,L.M., Capello,A., Leinders,S. and Husch,F., (2014) Stress 1-33     10.3109/10253890.2014.990880

The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study
Sumner,P., Vivian-Griffiths,S., Boivin,J., et al, (2014) BMJ 349:g7015    10.1136/bmj.g7015

Food availability/convenience and obesity
Gordon-Larsen,P., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:809-817    10.3945/an.114.007070

Food prices and obesity: a review
Finkelstein,E.A., Strombotne,K.L., Zhen,C. and Epstein,L.H., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:818-821     10.3945/an.114.007088

Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews
Fardet,A. and Boirie,Y., (2014) Nutr.Rev. 72:741-762     10.1111/nure.12153

Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk
Pereira,M.A., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:797-808     10.3945/an.114.007062

Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults
Karl,J.P. and Roberts,S.B., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:835-850    10.3945/an.114.007112

Portion size and obesity
Livingstone,M.B. and Pourshahidi,L.K., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:829-834      10.3945/an.114.007104

Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management
Kant,A.K., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:822-828       10.3945/an.114.007096

Variety, palatability, and obesity
Johnson,F. and Wardle,J., (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:851-859      10.3945/an.114.007120

The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture
Hruby,A. and Hu,F.B., (2014) Pharmacoeconomics     10.1007/s40273-014-0243-x  

The Role of Behaviour in Inequality in Increments of Dental Caries among Finnish Adults
Sabbah,W., Suominen,A.L., Vehkalahti,M.M., Aromaa,A. and Bernabe,E., (2014) Caries Res. 49:34-40        000366491  

Plaque pH in Caries-Free and Caries-Active Young Individuals before and after Frequent Rinses with Sucrose and Urea Solution
Hassan,H., Lingstrom,P. and Carlen,A., (2014) Caries Res. 49:18-25       000360798  

The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease
DiNicolantonio,J.J. and Lucan,S.C., (2014) Open Heart :e000167     10.1136/openhrt-2014-000167

Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes
Baker,L.B., Nuccio,R.P. and Jeukendrup,A.E., (2014) Nutr.Rev. 72:790-802    10.1111/nure.12157

Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference
Damsgaard,C.T., Dalskov,S.M., Laursen,R.P., et al,. (2014) Br.J.Nutr. 1-11 S0007114514003043

The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and experiment
Libotte,E., Siegrist,M. and Bucher,T., (2014) Appetite 82:91-96 10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.010

Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes in children and adolescents: A systematic review
Muckelbauer,R., Barbosa,C.L., Mittag,T., Burkhardt,K., Mikelaishvili,N. and Muller-Nordhorn,J., (2014) Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:2462-2475 10.1002/oby.20911 

Screen time, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers: mediation by physical activity, not snacking, among 11-year-old children
Berentzen,N.E., Smit,H.A., van Rossem,L., et al,. (2014) Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 38:1317-1323 10.1038/ijo.2014.110 [doi] 

Predicting adult weight change in the real world: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for compensatory changes in energy intake or expenditure
Dhurandhar,E.J., Kaiser,K.A., Dawson,J.A., Alcorn,A.S., Keating,K.D. and Allison,D.B., (2014) Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 10.1038/ijo.2014.184 [doi]

Soda and Cell Aging: Associations Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Leung,C.W., Laraia,B.A., Needham,B.L., et al,. (2014) Am.J.Public Health e1-e7  10.2105/AJPH.2014.302151 [doi]

Substituting water for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces circulating triglycerides and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese but not in overweight Mexican women in a randomized controlled trial
Hernandez-Cordero,S., Barquera,S., Rodriguez-Ramirez,S., et al,. (2014) J.Nutr. 144:1742-1752    10.3945/jn.114.193490 [doi]

A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness
Avery,A., Bostock,L. and McCullough,F., (2014) J.Hum.Nutr.Diet. 10.1111/jhn.12267 [doi]

"Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior
Hebebrand,J., Albayrak,O., Adan,R., et al, (2014) Neurosci.Biobehav.Rev. S0149-7634(14)00214-0

Diet or exercise interventions vs combined behavioral weight management programs: A systematic review and meta-analysis of direct comparisons
Johns,D.J., Hartmann-Boyce,J., Jebb,S.A., Aveyard,P. and Behavioural Weight Management Review Group, (2014) J Acad Nutr Diet 114 (10):1557-1568

Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults
Johnston,B., Kanters,S., Bandayrei,M. et al, (2014) JAMA 312 (9):923-933    10.1001/jama.2014.10397

Higher fructose intake is inversely associated with risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in older Finnish adults
Kanerva,N., Sandboge,S., Kaartinen,N.E., Mannisto,S. and Eriksson,J.G., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 100:1133-1138 10.3945/ajcn.114.086074

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota
Suez,J., Korem,T., Zeevi,D. and et al., (2014) Nature 10.1038/nature13793

Moderate amounts of fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages do not differentially alter metabolic health in male and female adolescents
Heden,T.D., Liu,Y., Park,Y.M., Nyhoff,L.M., Winn,N.C. and Kanaley,J.A., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 100:796-805    10.3945/ajcn.113.081232

Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies
Greenwood,D.C., Threapleton,D.E., Evans,C.E., et al, (2014) Br.J.Nutr. 112:725-734    10.1017/S0007114514001329

Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity
Trumbo,P.R. and Rivers,C.R., (2014) Nutr.Rev. 10.1111/nure.12128

The Effects of Fructose-Containing Sugars on Weight, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors When Consumed at up to the 90th Percentile Population Consumption Level for Fructose
Lowndes,J., Sinnett,S., Yu,Z. and Rippe,J., (2014) Nutrients 6:3153-3168    10.3390/nu6083153

Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism
Laughlin,M.R. (2014) Nutrients 6:3117-3129   nu6083117

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition
Weaver,C.M., Dwyer,J., Fulgoni,V.L.,3rd, et al. (2014)  Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 99:1525-1542   ajcn.114.089284

The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction
Hill,S.E., Prokosch,M.L., Morin,A. and Rodeheffer,C.D., (2014) Appetite S0195-6663(14)00400-0

Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations
Stellingwerff,T. and Cox,G.R., (2014) Appl.Physiol.Nutr.Metab. 39:998-1011   10.1139/apnm-2014-0027

Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Chung,M., Ma,J., Patel,K., Berger,S., Lau,J. and Lichtenstein,A.H., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. ajcn.086314 

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Nutrition Guidance for Healthy Children Ages 2 to 11 Years
Ogata,B.N., (2014) J Acad Nutr Diet 114:1257-1276

European children's sugar intake on weekdays versus weekends: the IDEFICS study
Svensson,A., Larsson,C., Eiben,G., et al, (2014) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 68:822-828     10.1038/ejcn.2014.87

The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study
Crockett,R.A., Jebb,S.A., Hankins,M. and Marteau,T.M., (2014) Appetite 81C:12-19     S0195-6663(14)00232-3

A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in Canadian Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease vs Healthy Controls
Da Silva,H.E., Arendt,B.M., Noureldin,S.A., Therapondos,G., Guindi,M. and Allard,J.P., (2014) J.Acad.Nutr.Diet. 114:1181-1194     10.1016/j.jand.2014.01.009

Effect of Eight Weeks of Overfeeding on Ectopic Fat Deposition and Insulin Sensitivity: Testing the "Adipose Tissue Expandability" Hypothesis
Johannsen,D.L., Tchoukalova,Y., Tam,C.S., et al, (2014) Diabetes Care DC_140761

Sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries in adults: A 4-year prospective study
Bernabe,E., Vehkalahti,M.M., Sheiham,A., Aromaa,A. and Suominen,A.L., (2014) J.Dent. 42:952-958    10.1016/j.jdent.2014.04.011

High fructose corn syrup and sucrose sweetened milk improve dietary quality during weight loss by displacing energy dense, nutrient poor foods
Sinnett,S., Lowndes,J., Nguyen,V., Lv,N. and Rippe,J., (2014) Food & Nutrition Sciences 5:1005-1014     10.4236/fns.2014.511111

Effects of learning and food form on energy intake and appetitive responses
Jones,J.B. and Mattes,R.D., (2014) Physiol.Behav. S0031-9384(14)00353-9

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages With Moderate Amounts of Fructose, but Not Sucrose, Induce Fatty Acid Synthesis in Healthy Young Men: A Randomized Crossover Study
Hochuli,M., Aeberli,I., Weiss,A., et al, (2014) J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 99 (6):2164-2172     10.1210/jc.2013-3856

A new understanding of the relationship between sugars, dental caries and fluoride use: implications for limits on sugars consumption
Sheiham,A. and James,W.P., (2014) Public Health Nutr. 1-9 S136898001400113X

Impact of dietary macronutrient distribution on BMI and cardiometabolic outcomes in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a systematic review
Gow,M.L., Ho,M., Burrows,T.L., et al, (2014) Nutr.Rev. 10.1111/nure.12111

Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies
Miller,P.E. and Perez,V., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. ajcn.082826

Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort
Makarem,N., Scott,M., Quatromoni,P., Jacques,P. and Parekh,N., (2014) Br.J.Nutr. 1-14 S0007114513004443

Using doubly labelled water to validate associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and body mass among White and African-American adults
Emond,J.A., Patterson,R.E., Jardack,P.M. and Arab,L., (2014) Int.J.Obes. 38:603-609     10.1038/ijo.2013.130

'Obesity paradox' misunderstands the biology of optimal weight throughout the life cycle
Dixon,J.B., Egger,G.J., Finkelstein,E.A., Kral,J.G. and Lambert,G.W., (2014) Int.J.Obes. 10.1038/ijo.2014.59

Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat (The Nutrinet-Sante Study)
Mejean,C., Deglaire,A., Kesse-Guyot,E., Hercberg,S., Schlich,P. and Castetbon,K., (2014) Appetite 78:147-155     10.1016/j.appet.2014.03.017

Added sugar intake in South Africa: findings from the Adult Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology cohort study
Vorster,H.H., Kruger,A., Wentzel-Viljoen,E., Kruger,H.S. and Margetts,B.M., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 99:1479-1486     ajcn.113.069005

Sweetened beverage consumption is associated with increased risk of stroke in women and men
Larsson,S.C., Akesson,A. and Wolk,A., (2014) J.Nutr. 144:856-860     10.3945/jn.114.190546

Dietary sugars and cardiometabolic risk: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of the effects on blood pressure and lipids
Te Morenga,L.A., Howatson,A.J., Jones,R.M. and Mann,J., (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. ajcn.113.081521

Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people
van der Zwaluw,N.L., van de Rest,O., Kessels,R.P. and de Groot,L.C., (2014) J.Clin.Exp.Neuropsychol. 36:517-527     10.1080/13803395.2014.912613 

Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review
Boyle,P., Koechlin,A. and Autier,P.,(2014). Eur.J.Cancer Prev. 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000015

The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects
Lowndes,J., Sinnett,S., Pardo,S., et al, (2014).  Nutrients 6:1128-1144     10.3390/nu6031128

Misconceptions about fructose-containing sugars and their role in the obesity epidemic
van Buul,V.J., Tappy,L. and Brouns,F.J., (2014). Nutr.Res.Rev. 1-12     10.1017/S0954422414000067

Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: we have, but the pox on sugar is overwrought and overworked
Kahn,R. and Sievenpiper,J.L., (2014). Diabetes Care 37:957-962     10.2337/dc13-2506

Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar
Bray,G.A. and Popkin,B.M., (2014). Diabetes Care 37:950-956     10.2337/dc13-2085

Effect of fructose on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials
Chiu,S., Sievenpiper,J.L., de Souza,R.J., et al,. (2014).  Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.1038/ejcn.2014.8

Protein leverage and energy intake
Gosby,A.K., Conigrave,A.D., Raubenheimer,D. and Simpson,S.J.,  (2014). Obes.Rev. 15:183-191    10.1111/obr.12131

Consumption of Less Than 10% of Total Energy From Added Sugars is Associated With Increasing HDL in Females During Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis
Lee,A.K., Binongo,J.N., Chowdhury,R., et al, (2014). J.Am.Heart Assoc. 3:e000615    10.1161/JAHA.113.000615

Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia
Moretto,N., Kendall,E., Whitty,J., et al, (2014).  Int.J.Environ.Res.Public.Health. 11:2456-2471     10.3390/ijerph110302456

Dietary strategies for the management of cardiovascular risk: role of dietary carbohydrates
Macdonald,I.A., (2014) Proc.Nutr.Soc. 1-5  10.1017/S0029665114000032

Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes
Mollard,R.C., Senechal,M., Macintosh,A.C., et al, (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.113.079277

Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars
Rampersaud,G.C., Kim,H., Gao,Z. and House,L.A., (2014) Nutr.Res. 34:134-142
10.1016/j.nutres.2013.11.004; 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.11.004

Under-reporting remains a key limitation of self-reported dietary intake: an analysis of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
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Eating a healthy, balanced diet along with taking regular exercise is key to physical and mental wellbeing.

No foods should be considered as ‘good or bad’ as all foods play an important role in the diet. It is only when foods are eaten in excess that health problems result.

Read more about eating healthy