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Recent Research

Relevant research papers that have been published recently in peer-reviewed scientific journals, on the subject of carbohydrates and health and associated subjects, have been summarised below.

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Note to Readers: Any opinions expressed in the recent research abstracts are those of the authors of the original scientific papers and may not reflect the views of Sugar Nutrition UK.

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Dietary strategies for the management of cardiovascular risk: role of dietary carbohydrates
Macdonald,I.A., (2014) Proc.Nutr.Soc. 1-5  10.1017/S0029665114000032

Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes
Mollard,R.C., Senechal,M., Macintosh,A.C., et al, (2014) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.113.079277

Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars
Rampersaud,G.C., Kim,H., Gao,Z. and House,L.A., (2014) Nutr.Res. 34:134-142
10.1016/j.nutres.2013.11.004; 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.11.004

Under-reporting remains a key limitation of self-reported dietary intake: an analysis of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
Gemming,L., Jiang,Y., Swinburn,B., Utter,J. and Mhurchu,C.N., (2014) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 68:259-264
10.1038/ejcn.2013.242; 10.1038/ejcn.2013.242

Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study
Tasevska,N., Park,Y., Jiao,L., Hollenbeck,A., Subar,A.F. and Potischman,N., (2014) AJCN 10.3945/ajcn.113.069369

Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults
Yang,Q., Zhang,Z., Gregg,E.W., Flanders,D., Merritt,R. and Hu,F.B., (2014) JAMA 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563

Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms
Bradshaw,D.J. and Lynch,R.J.,(2013). Int.Dent.J. 63 Suppl 2:64-72

Dietary patterns within a population are more reproducible than those of individuals
Dekker,L.H., Boer,J.M., Stricker,M.D., et al, (2013) J.Nutr. 143:1728-1735

Limitations of observational evidence: implications for evidence-based dietary recommendations
Maki,K.C., Slavin,J.L., Rains,T.M. and Kris-Etherton,P.M. (2014) Adv.Nutr. 5:7-15

Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis
Cabrera Escobar,M.A., Veerman,J.L., Tollman,S.M., Bertram,M.Y. and Hofman,K.J., (2013) BMC Public Health 13:1072

Averting Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in India through Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxation: An Economic-Epidemiologic Modeling Study
Basu,S., Vellakkal,S., Agrawal,S., Stuckler,D., Popkin,B. and Ebrahim,S., (2014) PLoS Med. 11:e1001582

Relationship of food addiction to weight loss and attrition during obesity treatment
Lent,M.R., Eichen,D.M., Goldbacher,E., Wadden,T.A. and Foster,G.D.,. (2014) Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:52-55

Overstatement of results in the nutrition and obesity peer-reviewed literature
Menachemi,N., Tajeu,G., Sen,B., et al,.(2013) Am.J.Prev.Med. 45:615-621

Effect of restriction on children's intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent's chronic use of restriction.
Rollins,B.Y., Loken,E., Savage,J.S. and Birch,L.L., (2014) Appetite 73:31-39

Fructose vs. glucose and metabolism: do the metabolic differences matter?
Sievenpiper,J.L., de Souza,R.J., Cozma,A.I., Chiavaroli,L., Ha,V. and Mirrahimi,A., (2013) Curr.Opin.Lipidol. 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000042

Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake: Systematic Review to Inform WHO Guidelines
Moynihan,P.J. and Kelly,S.A., (2014) J.Dent.Res. 93:8-18

Effect of fructose on postprandial triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials
Wang,D.D., Sievenpiper,J.L., de Souza,R.J., et al,.(2013) Atherosclerosis 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.10.019

Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity
Wang,J., Light,K., Henderson,M., et al,. (2013) J.Nutr. 10.3945/jn.113.182519

A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends.
Maniadakis,N., Kapaki,V., Damianidi,L. and Kourlaba,G., (2013) Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 5:519-543

Evidence mapping: methodologic foundations and application to intervention and observational research on sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes
Althuis,M.D. and Weed,D.L., (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 98:755-768

Isotopic estimates of sugar intake are related to chronic disease risk factors but not obesity in an Alaska native (Yup'ik) study population
Nash,S.H., Kristal,A.R., Bersamin,A., et al,. (2013) Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.1038/ejcn.2013.230; 10.1038/ejcn.2013.230

The role of fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup in diabetes
Cozma,A.I. and Sievenpiper,J.L.,.(2013) US Endocrinology 9

Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study
Briggs,A.D., Mytton,O.T., Kehlbacher,A., Tiffin,R., Rayner,M. and Scarborough,P.,. (2013) BMJ 347:f6189

Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial
Reid,M., Hammersley,R., Duffy,M. and Ballantyne,C. (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 1-8 10.1017/S0007114513002687

No Difference Between High-Fructose and High-Glucose Diets on Liver Triacylglycerol or Biochemistry in Healthy Overweight Men
Johnston,R.D., Stephenson,M.C., Crossland,H., et al (2013) Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.07.012; 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.07.01

Public Views on Food Addiction and Obesity: Implications for Policy and Treatment
Lee,N.M., Lucke,J., Hall,W.D., Meurk,C., Boyle,F.M. and Carter,A.,. (2013) PLoS One 8:e74836 10.1371/journal.pone.0074836

Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions
Stice,E., Burger,K.S. and Yokum,S., (2013) AJCN 10.3945/ajcn.113.069443

Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women
Appelhans,B.M., Bleil,M.E., Waring,M.E., et al, (2013) Physiol.Behav. 122C:129-133

Decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improved selected biomarkers of chronic disease risk among US adults: 1999-2010
Hert,K.A., Fisk,P.S., Rhee,Y.S. and Brunt,A.R., (2013) Nutr.Res. 10.1016/j.nutres2013.10.005

Similar effects on cognitive performance during high- and low-carbohydrate obesity treatment
Makris,A., Darcey,V.L., Rosenbaum,D.L., et al, (2013) Nutr.Diabetes 3:e89 10.1038/nutd.2013.29; 10.1038/nutd.2013.29

Food Addiction: Its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population
Pedram,P., Wadden,D., Amini,P., et al, (2013) PLoS One 8:e7483210.1371/journal.pone.0074832

45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure
Archer,E., Shook,R.P., Thomas,D.M., et al, (2013) PLoS One 8:e5662010.1371/journal.pone.0056620

Calorie anticipation alters food intake after low-caloric not high-caloric preloads
Hogenkamp,P.S., Cedernaes,J., Chapman,C.D., et al. (2013) Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:1548-1553

Portion Size: What we know and what we need to know.
Benton, D. (2013). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 10.1080/10408398.2012.679980

Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss
Haufe,S., Haas,V., Utz,W., et al,. (2013) Diabetes Care 10.2337/dc13-0102

Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Malik,V.S., Pan,A., Willett,W.C. and Hu,F.B.,.(2013) Am J Clin Nutr 10.3945/ajcn.113058362

Verbal descriptors influence hypothalamic response to low calorie drinks
Veldhuizen,M.G., Nachtigal,D.J., Flammer,L.J., de Araujo,I.E. and Small,D.M.,.(2013) Mole. Metab. org/10.1016/molmet2013.06.004

Dietary Energy Intake Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers In Children
Donin,A.S., Nightingale,C.M., Owen,C.G., et al,.(2013) Diabetes Care 10.2337/dc13-1263

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children
Deboer,M.D., Scharf,R.J. and Demmer,R.T.(2013) Pediatrics 10.1542/peds.2013-0570

Is there really a link between diabetes and the ingestion of fructose?
Livesey,G., (2013) Nutr Bull 38:337-343

Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003-2006)
Huth,P.J., Fulgoni,V.L.,3rd, Keast,D.R., Park,K. and Auestad,N.,.(2013) Nutr.J. 12:116

Sugar-fat seesaw: a systematic review of the evidence
Sadler,M.J., McNulty,H.M. and Gibson,S.,.(2013) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 10.1080/10408398.2011.654013

Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study
Jensen,B.W., Nielsen,B.M., Husby,I., et al, (2013) Pediatr.Obes. 8:259-270

Very High Fructose Intake Increases Serum LDL-Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol: a Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials
Zhang,Y.H., An,T., Zhang,R.C., Zhou,Q., Huang,Y. and Zhang,J.,(2013) J.Nutr. 10.3945/jn.113.175323

Diet beverages and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease: a review of the evidence
Pereira,M.A., Nutr.Rev. (2013) 71:433-440

Effects of a multi-micronutrient-fortified beverage, with and without sugar, on growth and cognition in South African schoolchildren: a randomised, double-blind, controlled intervention
Taljaard,C., Covic,N.M., van Graan,A.E., et al, (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 1-14

Dietary intake of carbohydrates and risk of type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study
Ahmadi-Abhari,S., Luben,R.N., Powell,N., et al, (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 1-11

Debate: Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak
Kaiser,K.A., Shikany,J.M., Keating,K.D. and Allison,D.B.,(2013) Obes Rev 14(8): 620-633.

Debate: Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
Hu,F.B., Obes.Rev. (2013) 14(8): 606-619.

Effects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men
Lennerz,B.S., Alsop,D.C., Holsen,L.M., et al,. (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.113.064113

Amount of sugar in Australian breakfast cereals is not associated with energy density or glycaemic index: Results of a systematic survey
Shrapnel,B., Nutr Diet (2013) 10.1111/1747-0080.12014

Fructose-Containing Sugars, Blood Pressure, and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Critical Review
Ha,V., Jayalath,V.H., Cozma,A.I., Mirrahimi,A., de Souza,R.J. and Sievenpiper,J.L., (2013) Curr.Hypertens.Rep. 10.1007/s11906-013-0364-1

Food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study
Bel-Serrat,S., Mouratidou,T., Bornhorst,C., et al, (2013) Pediatr.Obes. 8:225-236

The Effects of Carbohydrate, Unsaturated Fat, and Protein Intake on Measures of Insulin Sensitivity: Results from the OmniHeart Trial
Gadgil,M.D., Appel,L.J., Yeung,E., Anderson,C.A., Sacks,F.M. and Miller,E.R.,3rd, (2013) Diabetes Care 36:1132-1137

Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents
Ambrosini,G.L., Oddy,W.H., Huang,R.C., Mori,T.A., Beilin,L.J. and Jebb,S.A. (2013) AJCN 10.3945/ajcn.112.051383

Combined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour with cardiometabolic risk factors in children
Chaput,J.P., Saunders,T.J., Mathieu,M.E., et al (2013) Appl.Physiol.Nutr.Metab. 38:477-483

Trends in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth and adults in the United States: 1999-2010
Kit,B.K., Fakhouri,T.H., Park,S., Nielsen,S.J. and Ogden,C.L., (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.112.057943

Exercise Prevents Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Healthy Young Subjects
Egli,L., Lecoultre,V., Theytaz,F., et al, (2013) Diabetes 10.2337/db12-1651

The carbon isotope ratio of alanine in red blood cells is a new candidate biomarker of sugar-sweetened beverage intake
Choy,K., Nash,S.H., Kristal,A.R., Hopkins,S., Boyer,B.B. and O'Brien,D.M (2013) J.Nutr. 143:878-884

Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men
Sakurai,M., Nakamura,K., Miura,K., et al, (2013) Eur.J.Nutr. 10.1007/s00394-013-0523-9

Type 2 Diabetes: Etiology and reversibility 
Taylor,R., (2013) Diabetes Care 36:1047-1055

Comparison of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a eucaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects: Effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profile
Lewis,A.S., McCourt,H.J., Ennis,C.N., et al,. A Randomised Controlled Trial. (2013) Metabolism 62:694-702

Is there a specific role for sucrose in sports and exercise performance?
Wallis,G.A. and Wittekind,A., (2013) Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab

The effects of sucrose on metabolic health: a systematic review of human intervention studies in healthy adults
Gibson,S., Gunn,P., Cottrell,R.C. and Wittekind,A.L., (2013) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53:1-24

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and indices of body fatness in British children and adolescents
Murakami,K., McCaffrey,T.A. and Livingstone,M.B. (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 1-12

Metabolically healthy but obese, a matter of time? Findings from the prospective Pizarra study
Soriguer,F., Gutierrez-Repiso,C., Rubio-Martin,E., et al, (2013) J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab

Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct
The InterAct consortium (2013) Diabetologia

Effects of fructose and glucose overfeeding on hepatic insulin sensitivity and intrahepatic lipids in healthy humans
Lecoultre,V., Egli,L., Carrel,G., et al, (2013) Obesity (Silver Spring)

Prospective study of changes in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: the SUN cohort
Barrio-Lopez,M.T., Martinez-Gonzalez,M.A., Fernandez-Montero,A., Beunza,J.J., Zazpe,I. and Bes-Rastrollo,M (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 1-10

Carbohydrate nutrition and development of adiposity during adolescence
Gopinath,B., Flood,V.M., Rochtchina,E., et al. (2013) Obesity (Silver Spring)

Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?
Van Dijk,J.W., Manders,R.J., Canfora,E.E., et al (2013) Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 45:628-635

Metabolic syndrome in healthy obese, overweight, and normal weight individuals: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
Bradshaw,P.T., Monda,K.L. and Stevens (2013) J Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:203-209

Foods and beverages associated with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages
Mathias,K.C., Slining,M.M. and Popkin,B.M., (2013) Am.J.Prev.Med. 44:351-357

Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects
Utzschneider,K.M., Bayer-Carter,J.L., Arbuckle,M.D., Tidwell,J.M., Richards,T.L. and Craft,S., (2013) Br.J.Nutr. 109:1096-1104

Eating better for less: a national discount program for healthy food purchases in South Africa
An,R., Patel,D., Segal,D. and Sturm,R., (2013) Am.J.Health Behav. 37:56-61

Effectiveness of a Randomized School-Based Intervention Involving Families and Teachers to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain among Adolescents in Brazil
Cunha,D.B., de Souza Bda,S., Pereira,R.A. and Sichieri,R. (2013) PLoS One 8:e57498

Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Livesey,G., Taylor,R., Livesey,H. and Liu,S., (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.112.041467

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating  
Freeland-Graves,J.H. and Nitzke,S., (2013) J.Acad.Nutr.Diet. 113:307-317

Trends in energy intake among adults in the United States: findings from NHANES
Ford,E.S. and Dietz,W.H.,  (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.112.052662

Consumption of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles
Bravo,S., Lowndes,J., Sinnett,S. and Rippe,J., (2013) Appl Physiol. Nutr. Metab. doi.10.1139/apnm-2012-0322

The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data
Basu,S., Yoffe,P., Hills,N. and Lustig,R.,(2013) PLOSOne 8(2):1-7

The Relationships between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiometabolic Markers in Young Children
Kosova,E.C., Auinger,P. and Bremer,A.A.,(2013) J.Acad.Nutr.Diet. 113:219-227

Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomised clinical trial
Piernas,C., Tate,D.F., Xiaoshan,W. and Popkin,B.M (2013) AJCN 10.3945/ajcn.112.048405

Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake
Gibson,S. and Shirreffs,S.M. (2013) Nutr.J. 12:9

Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
Fagherazzi,G., Vilier,A., Sartorelli,D.S., Lajous,M., Balkau,B. and Clavel-Chapelon,F. (2013) AJCN 10.3945/ajcn.112.050997

Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades Yancy,W.S., Wang,C.C. and Maciejewski,M.L.,
Public Health Nutr. (2013) 1-10

Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk
Grimes,C.A., Riddell,L.J., Campbell,K.J. and Nowson,C.A (2013) Pediatrics 131:14-21

Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies
Pan,A., Malik,V.S., Hao,T., Willett,W.C., Mozaffarian,D. and Hu,F.B. (2013) Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 10.1038/ijo.2012.225;

Water Fluoridation and the Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Dental Caries in Australian Children
Armfield,J.M., Spencer,A.J., Roberts-Thomson,K.F. and Plastow,K., (2013) Am.J.Public Health 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300889

Is everything we eat associated with cancer? A systematic cookbook review
Schoenfeld,J.D. and Ioannidis,J.P (2013) Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 97(1):127-34 

A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lim,S.S., Vos,T., Flaxman,A.D., et al. (2013) Lancet 380:2224-2260

Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways
Page,K.A., Chan,O., Arora,J., et al..(2013) JAMA 309:63-- 70

Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Digestible Carbohydrate Intake Are Not Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Eight European Countries
Sluijs,I., Beulens,J.W., van der Schouw,Y.T., et al. (2013) J.Nutr. 143:93-99


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Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes.(2014) Mollard,R.C., Senechal,M., Macintosh,A.C., et al, Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 10.3945/ajcn.113.079277



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