Eating sugar or other carbohydrates will not give you 'Syndrome X'. It is caused, in the majority of people, by over-eating and an unbalanced diet, especially too much saturated fat, and by not getting enough exercise.
'Syndrome X', or the metabolic syndrome as it is also called, is the term applied to a collection of abnormalities in body function. These include resistance to the action of the hormone insulin, fat accumulated around the waist (central obesity) and increases in other risk factors for coronary heart disease development, for example, increased levels of fats in the bloodstream and raised blood pressure. Although a number of these abnormalities will be present in affected patients, the same symptoms may not be present in everyone, for example not all patients will have insulin resistance.
Taking regular exercise, such as brisk walking, and consuming a healthy balanced diet, low in saturated fat, will improve your fitness levels and your general health, and help to prevent the development of this syndrome and its complications.
Goop L. 2000. Genetics of the metabolic syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition, 83:Suppl 1, ppS39-S48.
Hales C.N. and Barker D.J. 2001. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. British Medical Bulletin, 60, pp5-20.
Katzmarzyk P.T., Church T.S., Blair S.N. 2004. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the effects of the Metabolic Syndrome on all-cause and Cardiovascular Disease mortality in men. Archives of Internal Medicine,164, pp1092-1097.
Reaven G.M. 1995. Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome X. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2(Suppl. B), pp37-42.