Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
Aune D et al., (2012) Cancer Causes Control 23:521-535
Objective: To review the evidence from prospective cohort studies for dietary carbohydrate to influence colorectal cancer risk
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Main outcome measures: Relative risk (high versus low intake meta-analysis, and dose response (meta-analysis) of colorectal cancer for GI, GL, total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fructose
Results: 14 cohort studies were identified. The summary RR for high vs low intake was for total carbohydrate 1.00 (CI 0.87-1.14), GI 1.07 (CI 0.99-1.16), and GL 1.00 (CI 0.91-1.10). The summary RR for a dose response was for total carbohydrate per 100g/day 0.95 (CI 0.84-1.07), per 10 GI units 1.07 (CI 0.99-1.15) and per 50 GL units 1.01 (CI 0.95-1.08). Six and five studies were included in the meta-analysis of high vs. low sucrose or fructose respectively with an RR of 1.01 (CI 0.87-1.16) for sucrose, and an RR of 1.05 (CI 0.87-1.27) for fructose. In sub-group meta-analyses, a significant positive association was found between GI and colorectal cancer risk in studies which had adjusted for PA (n=8) and in men (n=3) but not women.
Conclusions: The results of the meta-analysis do not support an independent association between diets high in carbohydrate, GI or GL and colorectal cancer risk.
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