Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?
Cassady BA, Considine RV, Mattes RD AJCN doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.025437
Objective: To assess the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential post-ingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid and solid food forms
Design: Randomised, 4-arm cross-over study. Subjects were given at their usual lunchtime, a pre-load of liquid (L) or solid (S), which they were informed would remain as either liquid or solid in their stomach i.e. oral-perceived gastric conditions of L-L, L-S, S-L or S-S. All preloads would actually be in liquid form in the stomach. Preloads consisted of ~10% individual daily energy requirements. 4-hr post-preload participants consumed an ad-libitum meal and completed diet records for the rest of the day.
Participants: 52 health adults (23 men), aged ~25 BMI ~26, low dietary restraint score.
Main outcome measures: Appetitive, dietary, gastric emptying, orocecal transit time and selected endocrine responses
Results: L-L and L-S preloads elicited greater hunger and lower fullness ratings, more rapid gastric emptying and orocecal transit times, lower insulin and GLP-1 response and lower ghrelin suppression compared to S-L and S-S treatments. Energy intake was greater following perceived gastric liquid preloads.
Conclusions: The findings are consistent with sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behaviour whereby energy-yielding beverages pose a particular risk for +ve energy balance
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